Remember the Maine was named after the USS Maine sinking, which started the Spanish/American war in 1898.
Ten years earlier the Kodak roll-film camera was created, this went in a Kodak box camera – a simple and cheap camera. In 1900 the Brownie was created – both of these invention gave photography to the masses. This gave way to the snapshot of the everyday from holidays, important events, parties and capturing family life.
The Spanish/American war was captured through photography. Even the Maine sinking (see photograph). In a lot of the photographs there are boats and smoke from the cannon balls.
Photographers like Eugene Atget were documenting the world around them. His project ‘Old Paris’ started in 1897 and continued until after WW1. He documented the modernisation schemes happening throughout the city.
This was the era of Post Impressionism 1885-1910 but it was on the verge of a new era of Fauvism and Expressionism which started in 1900-1935.
Post Impressionism is a genre where painters tried to express their emotion rather than concentrating on deeper symbolism. Colours were more basic and the work had more abstract characteristics. The genre had four front runners each taking it in different directions, each would not have considered themselves as part of a collective. However Roger Fry – an art critic of the time coined the term ‘Post Impressionists’:
- Paul Cezanne focused on nature subject of Impressionism yet his brushstrokes were more repetitive – usually using a palette knife to apply the paint.
- Paul Gauguin kept the intense light and colour of Impressionism but the subject wasn’t nature it was a more imaginative.
- George Seurat experimented with tiny dots of colour next to one another so the viewer would then merge all the colours together
- Vincent van Gogh, in reverse of Gauguin he painted from nature but developed his own person use of colour and brushwork. The mirrored his emotions and inner world.
Cézanne retained the fundamental doctrine of painting from nature but with added rigour, famously saying ‘I want to re-do Poussin from nature’. (Poussin being a notoriously intellectual pioneer of French landscape).
Women wore tight bodices, the arms of dresses were tight but the arms weren’t. The skirts were still full length and A-line shape. Hats had a lot of trimmings on them but were typically worn on top of the head.
Whereas men’s fashion three-piece suits were in vogue, with creases at the front of the trousers. Collars of the shirts were high and stiff, with the tips pressed into a wing shape.
This is now in the next stage of the stages of bars according to David Wondrich (1885-1920). In the stage the tools brought in in the previous stage the tools were improved upon so shakers didn’t break or erode, the strainers got a spring around them to fit into any glass. Spirits also changed American Whiskey and Scotch Whisky over took Brandy (after a insect got to crops). Dry Gins became increasingly more popular and there were more imported liqueurs